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极速赛车那个国家彩票

极速赛车那个国家彩票:普京宣称俄罗斯正在开发核动力巡航导弹,可避开所有的导弹拦截系统

时间:2018/3/8 1:29:04  作者:  来源:  浏览:0  评论:0
内容摘要:MOSCOW — Deploying emotional language and an animation of a cruise missile streaking toward North America, Russian President Vladimir Putin ...
MOSCOW — Deploying emotional language and an animation of a cruise missile streaking toward North America, Russian President Vladimir Putin used an annual speech to his nation on Thursday to claim Russia was developing new nuclear weapons that he said could overcome any U.S. missile defenses.

Putin’s speech, less than three weeks before the Russian presidential election, represented an escalated level of martial rhetoric even by his pugnacious standards. For the first time, Putin claimed that Russia had successfully tested nuclear-propulsion engines that would allow nuclear-tipped cruise missiles and underwater drones to travel for virtually unlimited distances and evade traditional defenses.

He also warned that Moscow would consider a nuclear attack, of any size, on one of its allies to be an attack on Russia itself, and that it would lead to an immediate response. Putin did not specify which countries he considers allies.

Putin made clear that his declaration of Russian prowess was aimed squarely at the United States, which he accused of fomenting a new arms race by resisting arms-control negotiations, developing new missile-defense systems, and adopting a more aggressive posture in its nuclear strategy. In doing so, he said, the United States had failed to take seriously Russia’s strength.

“No one listened to us,” Putin said. “Listen to us now.”

莫斯科------俄罗斯总统弗拉基米尔·普京在周四向全国发表年度讲话,声称俄罗斯正在研制打击范围覆盖北美新的核武器,并称这种武器可以越过美国的任何反导系统。

普京的演讲,距离俄罗斯总统大选不到三周的时间,即使以他好斗的口吻来说,也算是十分激进了。普京第一次宣布,俄罗斯已经成功地测试了核推进引擎,可携带核弹头的巡航导弹和水下无人机可以在几乎无限制的距离内行驶,从而避开传统的导弹防御方式。

他还警告说,如果俄罗斯或其盟友受到了攻击,莫斯科会考虑以任何规模的核攻击迅速反击。普京没有具体说明他认为哪些国家是盟友。

普京明确表示,他的这些声明针对美国,他指责美国通过抵制核裁军谈判、开发新的导弹防御系统、在其核战略中采取更激进的姿态来煽动一场新的军备竞赛。他说,在这样做的过程中,美国没有认真对待俄罗斯的实力。

“以前没人听我们的”普京说。“现在要听一下了。”

Pentagon spokeswoman Dana White said U.S. officials were “not surprised” by Putin’s comments, but gave no details about the extent of knowledge on Russian military development.

She also rejected Putin’s suggestion that Russia needed to upgrade its firepower because of defensive buildups in the West.

“Our missile defense has never been about [Russia],” White told reporters.

Top U.S. generals have issued warnings for months about the development and deployment of new Russian cruise missiles, urging Congress and the Pentagon to step up technology that could better defend against them. Cruise missiles hug the terrain, flying low and fast, allowing them to evade radar and missile defense systems that are designed to shoot down missiles that fly more slowly and at an arc.

Russia has developed new cruise missiles “with the capability to hold targets at risk at ranges we haven’t seen before,” Air Force Gen. Lori Robinson, the commander of U.S. Northern Command, which is assigned to defend the continental United States, said in Senate testimony in mid-February.

Putin on Thursday described Russian missile capabilities that had been little-discussed publicly in Washington in recent years — cruise missiles equipped with nuclear-propulsion engines, giving them essentially unlimited range and the ability to follow an unpredictable flight path. To demonstrate the point, Putin showed a video animation of a missile launched in the Russian Arctic evading missile defenses as it crossed the Atlantic, rounded the southern tip of South America, and headed toward the United States.

五角大楼发言人达纳·怀特说,美国官员对普京的言论“并不感到惊讶”,但对有关俄罗斯军事发展的消息没有更多的回应。

她还驳斥了普京说因为美国发展反导系统而迫使俄罗斯发展导弹的言论。

怀特对记者说:“我们的导弹防御系统从来都不是针对俄罗斯的。”

几个月来,美国高级将领就新俄罗斯巡航导弹的开发和部署发出警告,敦促国会和五角大楼加强技术,以便更好地抵御这些导弹。巡航导弹在低空上飞行,飞得又低又快,使它们能够躲避雷达和导弹防御系统,这些导弹防御系统是用来击落那些飞得比较慢的导弹的。

美国北方司令部司令洛丽·罗宾逊在2月中旬在参议院作证时说,俄罗斯已经研制出新的巡航导弹,“有能力在我们从未到过的范围内控制目标。”

普京周四称,近年来在华盛顿很少公开讨论的俄罗斯导弹能力——配备有核动力推进发动机的巡航导弹,使其拥有无限的射程和不可预测的飞行路线的能力。为了证明这一点,普京展示了一段视频动画,视频中导弹在俄罗斯的北极地区发射导弹防御系统,越过大西洋,绕过南美洲的南端,向美国进发。

His claims in his annual speech to lawmakers jolted close observers of the Russian military. An independent Russian military analyst, Alexander Golts, said that weapons experts he had spoken to after the speech “were all in shock, as was I.”

“This is the start of a new Cold War,” Golts said. “This is an effort to scare the West.”

While the weapons Putin unveiled have likely been in development for years, his confrontational tone appeared in part to be a response to the Trump administration’s more hawkish approach to nuclear weapons. Putin said that Pentagon plans announced last month to introduce two new types of nuclear weapons and broaden scenarios for their use “provoke great concern.”

With a defense budget far smaller than that of the United States, Russia is ill-positioned to compete in a traditional arms race. But Putin’s visual presentation of new Russian weaponry seemed designed to show Washington that it intended to maintain pace with the United States as a nuclear superpower.

It wasn’t immediately clear whether the weapons Putin described were operable or how close they were to being ready for deployment. But the speech, analysts said, represented a new milestone in mounting U.S.-Russian tensions, which have been rising since the Ukraine crisis erupted four years ago.

“Relations with the U.S. are at a point where the only thing that must be worked on every minute of every day is that this does not lead to a collision,” said Dmitri Trenin, director of the Carnegie Moscow Center think tank.

In his two-hour speech in a historic hall just outside the Kremlin walls, Putin claimed that late last year Russia had successfully tested a cruise missile that was propelled by a nuclear-powered engine. The missile will be able to fly close to the ground and follow an unpredictable flight path, rendering existing missile defenses “useless,” Putin said.

He also said that Russia in December had concluded a multiyear testing cycle for an underwater, nuclear-powered drone.

The successful tests, he said, “will allow the development of a complete new type of weapon — a strategic complex of nuclear arms with rockets fitted with a nuclear-propulsion engine.”

The speech also came at a significant domestic moment.

With the March 18 presidential election looming, the Kremlin is looking to high voter turnout to add legitimacy to what appears certain to be a fourth six-year presidential term for the 65-year-old Putin, who first took power in 1999. For the first half of the speech, Putin talked about improving Russians’ lives at home, promising to double government spending on roads, health care and regional development.

The talk of high-tech weapons, analysts said, suggested to Russian voters that Putin was ensuring their security even if many domestic problems remained to be fixed.

Putin’s speech “radically changed the aesthetics of foreign policy,” said Konstantin Gaaze, an independent Russian political analyst. “This aesthetics is based on the principle of ‘Russia can carry out a global nuclear strike on any point it chooses.’ ”

Putin’s comments come ahead of the U.S. military’s planned release of its new missile defense policy. Though U.S. missile defenses were initially conceived during the Cold War as a way to shield the country from Soviet missile threats, they evolved after the collapse of the U.S.S.R. to focus on defending against rogue nations such as North Korea and Iran.

他这次讲话,震动了俄罗斯的军方人员。俄罗斯独立军事分析家亚历山大·戈尔茨说,在听过他演讲后的武器专家都表示震惊,我也一样。

“这是新一场冷战的开始,”戈尔兹说。“这是一种恐吓西方的行为。”

尽管普京公布的武器可能已经发展了多年,但他的对抗语气部分是为了回应特朗普政府对核武器更为强硬的态度。普京说,五角大楼上个月宣布计划推出两种新型核武器,并扩大使用范围的消息“引起了极大关注”。

由于国防预算远低于美国,俄罗斯在传统军备竞赛中处于劣势。但普京对俄罗斯新武器的视觉展示,似乎意在向华盛顿表明,它打算与美国保持同步,成为一个核大国。

目前还不清楚普京所描述的武器已经是可装备的的,还是说是未准备好的。但是,分析人士说,这次演讲代表着美俄局势的一个新的里程碑。这种紧张局势自4年前乌克兰危机爆发以来一直在加剧。

莫斯科卡内基中心智库主任德米特里·特列宁说:“与美国的关系态势已经到了临界点,无时无刻都必需要注意的是,所做的事不会导致冲突。”

在克林姆林宫外的一个历史大厅里,普京在两个小时的演讲中声称,去年年底,俄罗斯成功试射了一枚由核动力发动机推动的巡航导弹。普京说,这枚导弹将能够飞离地面,并走一个不可预测的飞行路线,使现有的导弹防御系统“毫无用处”。

他还说,俄罗斯去年12月已经结束了一项为期多年的水下核动力无人机的测试周期。

他说,这次成功的试验“将允许研制一种全新的武器——一种具有核推进引擎的复合型战略核武器。”

他的讲话也处于俄罗斯的一个重要时刻。

随着3月18日总统选举的临近,克林姆林宫正在寻求高投票率,以增加对现年65岁的普京的第四个六年总统任期的合法性。普京于1999年首次掌权。在演讲的前半部分,普京谈到改善俄罗斯人在国内的生活,承诺增加政府在道路、医疗保健和区域发展方面的开支。

分析人士说,关于高科技武器的讨论,是普京为了赢得选票所做的行动,即使许多国内问题仍未解决。

普京的演讲“彻底改变了外交政策的美学”,独立的俄罗斯政治分析家康斯坦丁·加泽说。“这种美学基于‘俄罗斯可以在它选择的任何一点上进行全球核打击’的原则上实现的。”

普京发表上述言论之前,美国军方计划公布新的导弹防御政策。尽管美国的导弹防御系统最初是在冷战期间被构想出来的,目的是为了保护美国免受苏联导弹威胁,但在苏联解体后,美国的导弹防御系统的关注转到了对朝鲜和伊朗等流氓国家的防御上。

The 44 missile interceptor silos that the United States operates in Alaska and Hawaii and the Aegis and Thaad installations it operates with its allies in Asia and Europe would prove no match against a full-blown, multi-missile attack by a peer competitor such as Russia. Those systems would more likely be successful in downing a limited number of missiles launched by North Korea or a single missile accidentally launched by Russia.

The United States has installed Aegis missile defense systems in Romania and Poland, which has angered the Kremlin, even though Washington has long said the installations are primarily aimed at countering an attack on the United States or its allies from Iran. Russia has long argued that those installations violate the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty, a claim that the United States has denied.

美国在阿拉斯加和夏威夷部署的44枚导弹拦截器,以及它与亚洲和欧洲盟友合作的宙斯盾和Thaad装置,都无法与俄罗斯或同等水平的全面、多导弹攻击相抗衡。这些系统更有可能成功击落由朝鲜发射的数量有限的导弹,或由俄罗斯意外发射的一枚导弹。

美国在罗马尼亚和波兰安装了“Aegis”导弹防御系统,此举激怒了克里姆林宫,尽管华盛顿方面一直表示,这些设施的主要目的是打击美国及其盟友对伊朗的攻击。俄罗斯长期以来一直认为,这些设施违反了《中程核力量条约》,美国则对此予以否认。



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